The term “report” came in the first half of the XIX century. And is derived from the Latin word «reportage», meaning “pass”, “report”. The original genre of reportage were the publication, informs the reader about the course of hearings, parliamentary debates, various meetings, etc. Later, such “reports” came to be called “reports”. A “report” began referring to the publication of a somewhat different nature, namely those that, by their content, form similar to modern Russian essays. So, the outstanding Western reporters, John Reid, Egon Erwin Kisch, Ernest Hemingway, Julius Fucik, etc. Were, in our understanding, essayist rather than reporters. And now, when the European journalist says something about reportage, he is referring to what we call the essay. Just west essays, in terms of their “name”, and are genetic predecessors and immediate “family” of the current Russian reportage. Take this, of course, into account when used in the domestic theory of reportage theoretical reflections of Western researchers.
Reporting is one of the most favorite genres of local journalists. The history of Russian journalism remembers dozens of prominent names of reporters and especially the name of VA Gilyarovskogo ( “Uncle Gilyaya”, “king of reporters’), who became famous in the late XIX – early XX century. its talented tales of grim slums Khitrova Moscow market, the terrible event at Khodynka, the life of working people in industrial enterprises of Moscow, etc. Many reporters have become well-known writers, but their fame has grown primarily on reportage. This is in no small part due to the opportunities that have this type of material.
The originality of publications related to the genre of reportage, occurs primarily because of “full-scale” using the method of observation and recording in the text of its progress and results.
The task of any reporter is primarily to give the audience the opportunity to see an event described by an eyewitness (reporter), i.e. create a “presence effect”. In addition, it gets to the greatest extent possible only if the journalist will talk about the subject situations and events (and best of all – quickly developing). (In this regard, in the above example, the author describes everything that he saw in the dental office – and a girl in a chair, and shiny tools and diamond drill, and Kevlar, and white robes, etc. All this allows the reader as if to visit this office.)
To the reporter’s important not only to clearly describe an event, but also to describe it to cause the reader’s empathy of what was going on in the text. This can be done in different ways. Most often, this object is achieved in two ways. The first – a statement of the dynamics of the event. In the event that the displayed event is developing rapidly, the author can only show this development. However, there are events, situations, development of which is stale, uncertain, is static. In this case, the author can help “on the surface of the output” event of its internal dynamics and the dynamics of the presentation copyright feelings caused by his familiarity with the event. (In our example, the reportage of his dental office could be strengthened if necessary by a more vivid and detailed description of the author’s experiences associated with dental treatment.)
Reporting in common with some, other genres (especially artistic and journalistic) using the method of visualizing reality. However, the visibility in the report shall be purely informative function; the function reported quite particular event, accident and so forth. Moreover, let us say, to sketch a visual display pursues primarily the purpose of generalization, typing. Visual details of analytical genres are used to “decorate”, “revival” of serious, and therefore difficult to understand a certain part of the audience thought of the author.